Yoshitoshi Students Signing as "Toshimitsu"

The correct attribution of the various Meiji-era signatures reading "Toshimitsu" is a vexing topic, and no two reference sources are in full agreement. But, by studying the legal names and addresses of artists as they appear on prints, I think it is possible to find firmer ground.

The other source of information that provides a terse but presumably reliable guide is the Yoshitoshi Monument, erected in 1898. This memorial records several lists of names, including separate lists for living and deceased students of Yoshitoshi. Among the deceased students we see the names Kobayashi Toshimitsu 小林年参, and Toshimitsu 年光. Among the living students is another Toshimitsu 年光.

The schematization I have arrived at groups "Toshimitsu" signatures among four distinct artists. What follows is the evidence I have relied on for this organization. It is not meant to be an exhaustive list of the works of any of the artists or names used; rather I have included only evidence that I feel contributes to the inquiry at hand.

Fukushima Toshimitsu

A Tokyo-based designer of senso-e, with known works dated 1894, 1900, and 1904. Identified on an 1894 print as "Fukushima Toshimitsu" 福島年光, with an address in Kyōbashi Mizutanichō.

I presume this to be the Toshimitsu 年光 named among living students on the Yoshitoshi Monument.

年光
応需年光
臨写印刷兼発行者:浅賀鉄五郎
下谷区坂本町壱丁目十六バンチ
画工:福島年光
京橋区水谷町七
1894.10 日本大捷九連城激戦図 [1]

Ukiyo Toshimitsu

An Osaka-based illustrator. I can find no legal name or address for this artist, but every work I have located was produced by an Osaka publisher.

The print signed "Ōtsuki Toshimitsu" is the only such example I have found. The signature is said by GUDJ to belong to Kobayashi Eisei, but I have placed it here with Ukiyo Toshimitsu on the grounds that: (1) the print was issued by an Osaka publisher, and (2) the signature more closely resembles that of Ukiyo Toshimitsu.

Works I have found date from 1877 to 1879.

I presume this to be the Toshimitsu 年光 named among deceased students on the Yoshitoshi Monument.

年光
うきよ年光画
編輯:佐々木吉太郎
堺県第一大区二小区大町東一丁八十四番地
出板人:鈴木利兵ヱ
阪府下第二大区六小区谷西ノ丁二番地
1877.9.1 薩日略軍記 [1]
年光
大月年光
編輯出版:佐々木芳太郎
第二大区…町…六番地細井…
売捌所:綿屋喜兵衛
大阪心橋塩町角
1878 百花叡覧 [1]
年光
年光囗写
編輯出版人:佐々木芳太郎
大阪府下第二大区六小区三津寺町
1878.5 大日本官員録 [1]

Kobayashi Takayoshi

A Tokyo-based artist, most of whose work illustrates episodes from the Boshin War. A sugoroku board from 1876 gives the artist's legal name as Kobayashi Takayoshi 小林隆吉. That print also lists an artist address — the first kanji of the address is unclear, but my best guess (shown below) is that it is in Shiba Karasumorimachi.

According to GUDJ, this is the artist who signed as Kanogen Fusakatsu 花の原房勝 (reading uncertain); I do not know on what basis this assertion rests. Neither of the two designs I know of bearing that signature give any clues to the identity of the artist.

I am aware of prints signed Toshimitsu 年充 from 1874 and 1876. GUDJ dates the series "Kunmō kinsei zusetsu" 訓蒙近世図説 to 1871, but all prints from that series that I have found identifiable date/censor seals on date from 1874. The prints signed "Kanogen Fusakatsu" date from 1874 and 1875.

This artist does not appear to be named on the Yoshitoshi Monument.

年充
高斎年充
丸屋鉄次郎 板元
日本橋通二
1874.2? 訓蒙近世図説 [1]
年充
… 高斎年充
画工:小林隆吉
森町壱番地
板元:武川清吉
須田町四番地
1876.12.11 近世高名双六 [1]

Kobayashi Eisei

A Tokyo-based artist identified in print colophons as "Kobayashi Eisei", written both as 古林栄成 and 小林栄成 (the first of these could also be read "Furubayashi Eisei"). I can detect no obvious pattern to the use of one spelling of the name versus the other. At first I took them to belong to two different people, but as the signatures and colophons that follow clearly show, they belong to the same artist.

Names employed by the artist in signatures include: Kōsai (高斎), Shinsai (進斎), Teisai (亭斎), Toshimitsu (年参), Toshimitsu (年光), and Toshiyama (年山). According to Ukiyoeshi den 浮世絵師伝 (1931), the artist also signed as Toshimine 年峯 while living at the address in Ginza (see below), presumably before the name was adopted by Tsutsui Toshimine — I have not found any evidence of such a signature; perhaps "峯" is a mistranscription of "参"?

The earliest print I know of bearing an artist address puts the artist in Sarugakuchō Nichōme at the end of 1876. He moved frequently during the next two or so years, with at least five other addresses in Sarugakuchō identified in colophons from 1877 and 1878. Early 1879 found him at Ginza Nichōme 10-banchi, but by summer he had returned to an address in Sarugakuchō he had lived at in early 1877. By early 1881 he was back at Ginza Nichōme 10-banchi, where he appears to have settled more permanently.

Known works date from c.1874 to 1886.

This is clearly the Kobayashi Toshimitsu 小林年参 named on the Yoshitoshi Monument.

進斎
応需進斎画
画顯:古林栄成
猿楽町二丁目二番地
銀座四丁目
1876.12.11 西国新聞双六 [1]
進斎
応需進斎
小林栄成 
猿楽町二丁目二番地
林吉蔵 
南傅馬丁一丁目二番地
1877.2.8 うきよはんじょう穴さがし [1]
進斎
応需進斎
画工:古林栄成
猿楽町二丁目三番地
出板人:山中北郎
銀座四丁目拾四番地
1877.2? 西南征討全記 [1]
進斎
随需進斎蛾
画工:古林栄成
猿楽町二丁目三番地
出板:山中北郎
銀座四丁目十四番地
1877.3 or 1877.4 西征鎮備録 [1]
進斎
応需進斎蛾
画工:古林栄成
猿楽町二丁目三番地
出板人:伊東祐太郎
… 町目三番地
(1877) 巷説載談 西隅紀聞 [1]
進斎
日不見岡進斎
画工:古林栄成
猿楽町二丁目三番地
出板人:山中北郎
銀座四丁目十四番地
1877(.3.26) 西國征討新誌 [1]
進斎
随需進斎
画工:古林栄成
町二丁目
出板人:山中太郎
銀座四丁目十四番地
1877 熊城宴会之図 [1]
年参
応需年参写
画工:古林栄成
猿楽町二丁目三番地
出板人:小林鉄次郎
通三丁目十三番地
[1]
進斎
応需進斎筆
画工:小林栄成
猿楽町二丁目三番地
出版人:児玉弥七
浅草馬道町三丁目番地
1877.04.23 鹿児嶋戦争記 [1]
進斎
応需進斎筆
画工:古林栄成
猿楽町二丁目三番地
出板人:片桐金太郎
弓町廿三番地
1877.4.28 鹿児嶋賊徒征討 [1]
進斎
古林栄成
猿楽町二丁目十六番地
市川竹太郎
芝浜松町一丁目一番地
1877.5.24 五段目 勘平のはたらき [1] [2]
進斎
応需進斎筆
画工:小林栄成
猿楽町二丁目四番地
出板人:大倉孫兵衛
日本ばし通一丁目十九番地
1877.8.15 上野公園地博覧会御開業図 [1] [2]
進斎
随需進斎
画工:古林栄成
猿楽町二丁目三番地
出板人:大倉孫兵
日本橋通一丁目十九番地
1877.9.12 鹿児島英雄揃 [1]
進斎
随需進斎
画工:古林栄成
猿楽町二丁目三番地
出板人:山中北郎
四丁目十四番地
1877.10.11 賊魁ノ首級實検之圖 [1] [2] [3]
進斎
随需進斎画
畫工:古林栄成
猿楽町十六番地
出板人:山中北郎
銀座四丁目十四番地
1877.12.17 於テ城山巨賊ノ首ヲ検視ス [1] [2]
進斎年参
応需進斎年参
画工:古林栄成
町十番地
出板人:井沢菊太郎
愛宕町三丁目番地
1878.11 元治夢物語 [1] [2]
高斎
応需高斎筆
画工:小林栄成
京バシク…十バンチ
出板人:木曽直次郎
京バシク…丁…チ
1879.3 東京勧業場開業式之圖 [1] [2]
亭斎
応需亭斎画
画者:小林栄成
京バシ区銀座二丁メ十バンチ
出板人:鹿嶋松次郎
芝区浜松町三丁メ十一バンチ
1879 官女船遊之図 [1]
年光
応需年光
画工:古林栄成
猿楽町二丁目番地
出板人:大倉孫兵衛
東京日本一丁目十九番地
1879.7.16 上野公園地ニ於テ米國前ノ大統領グラント氏鎗術遊覧圖 [1]
亭斎
応需亭斎画
画工:小林栄成
出板人:井沢菊太郎
1879.12.2 娘評判面白寿語録 [1]
年光
応需秊光画
画工:小林栄成
銀座二丁目十番地
出板人:井沢菊太郎
愛宕町三丁目五バンチ
1881, Spring 上野公園博覧会場 美術館猩々噴水器之図 [1]
秊山
応需小林秊山図画
編集:小林栄成
京橋区銀座二丁目十番地
出版:安田安五郎
日本橋区霊岸島塩町十九番地
1881.9 大日本府県名所独案内 附都会便覧名所画入 [1]
編輯兼出版人:小林栄成
京橋区銀座二丁目十番地
専売堂 
1881.10.6 世界転覆奇談 [1]
高斎
高斎筆
画工:小林栄成
…銀座…丁目…バンチ
出板人:井沢菊太郎
芝区…
1882.12.6 懐妊子宝双六 [1]
年参
応需進斎画
画工者:小林栄成
京バシ区銀座二丁目十バンチ
出板人:井沢菊太郎
アタゴ町…バンチ
1884 梁山泊麓両傑争勇 [1] [2] [3]
年参
応需進斎画
画工者:小林栄成
京バシ区銀座二丁目十バンチ
出板人:片田長治郎
浅草諏訪町十九番地
c.1889 (reissue) 梁山泊麓両傑争勇 [1] [2] [3]